The population of Canada in 1811 was about 77,000 men, women and children. Many were recent American immigrants, British sympathizers, who had fled the colonies from the south at the end of the American Revolution, attracted by the offer of 200 acres of free land.
The US declared war on Great Britain on June 18, 1812, the news of which reached Montreal by the 24th, where the head of the British military forces were stationed. The soldiers of the 41st and 49th British Regiments were the real line of defense 10 years after the American Revolution. There were four companies of artillery and six Regiments of Foot. These soldiers were stationed in both Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec) and immediately were mobilized, while about 800 men of militia units were also called out to fight to supplement the army. At first the British concentrated their forces at Fort George, Chippewa and Fort Erie. Meanwhile, the US colonies sent 3 frigates from New York to attack British ships.
The principle objective was to occupy Upper Canada and as much of the St Lawrence River as possible.
A large army of Americans crossed the Detroit River in July 1812 and occupied the town of Sandwich (today’s Windsor). The British retaliated by seizing the American post of Michilimackinac, and demanded the surrender of the American army at Sandwich on August 16th. The Americans turned their attention to the Niagara Peninsula instead, and invaded October 13th. They were defeated. However, the British leader, Sir Isaac Brock, was killed when leading a charge up Queenston Heights (at Hamilton). The Americans made another abortive strike at Fort Erie that failed, and by late November all conflicts ended.
The Americans returned April 27, 1813 to attack York (Toronto) occupying the area for a few days. The British retired to Kingston. A month later, Fort George in Niagara was also taken by the Americans, and the British forces withdrew towards Burlington. At Stoney Creek the Americans were finally repulsed during a night attack on June 6th. The Americans withdrew, blowing up Fort Erie as the retreated. The British pushed back into the Niagara Region to camp at Niagara. Other American strikes along the St Lawrence River collapsed with defeats at Chateauguay and Chrysler’s Farm.
In 1814 major actions occurred near Niagara Falls, Chippewa and Lundy’s Lane. By then the British had a new leader, who had strengthened the British forces throughout the region. Following a seige at Fort Erie, the American army withdrew at the end of October.
Understanding Canada’s Militia
Typical milita regiments in Upper Canada comprised of all eligible men between ages 16 to 60 living within a defined geographical boundary, which was divided into 10 companies, each commanded by a Captain. A Company had no more than 50 privates and no less than 20. Quakers, Mennonites and Friends, clergymen, crown officials or millers and ferrymen were not expected to bear arms, but had to pay a substantial fee. Militia men had to provide their own rifles and ammunition.
Each Regiment was designated by the name of the county within which it was based, and commanded by a Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel, who was assisted by a Major.
Annual pay, after deductions for rations, was six pence a day, which was not enough to support a family. Many soldiers deserted, with many surrendering to the Americans or returning to their farms. The highest paid officer received 17 shillings, the equivalent of 34 days’ pay of a private. Often pay was months, even years in arrears. If a milita man was killed or died on active duty, his widow and family were eligible for an annual payment of 55 pounds.
After the war there was annual training for militia. The Captains called out their companies at least two to four times a year for training. The rank and file in 1812 was 11,650 men, which dropped to 9, 455 by 1814.
137 Gillespie have been identified as involved in this war. They were from the states of Ilinois, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsyvania, Virginia, Tennessee. From the pay files in Kew, England are these Gillespies:
Francis Gillespie, Private, 13th Regiment of Infantry, Battle of Queenston Heights, US Army Personnel, Pay & Munster Roll
Hugh Gillespie, Private, 49th Regiment of Foot, Queenston Heights, 30 Sept 1812, Regular British Army Personnel
Michael Gillespie, Corporal, 41st Regiment of Foot, Fort George, Regular British Army Personnel Sept 30, 1812
Robert Gillespie, 1785–1863, Ensign, Lieutenant, Montreal British Militia Feb 15, 1811 Lower Canada (Quebec) Voluntary Calvary. Note: Robert was from a mercant family in Scotland, whose family history is the Archives of this library).
William Gillespy, Private, 2nd Norfolk, Flanker, London District (William 1781-1867 born UC, s/o William Gillaspy Sr & Anne Everingham who were originally from New Jersey and had settled in Walsingham Twp of Norfolk County, in Upper Canada. William Jr married Harriet Monroe of United Empire Loyalist father Lieutenant John Monroe). The Gillespies were of Scottish origins.